European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 108 No 4
Aug, 2013

A Comparison of Methods for Aging Modelling in Reliability Evaluation of Power Distribution Systems
486-505
Mina Ghadirpoor, Mahmood Joorabian, Mohsen Saniei

Abstract:
Mote Carlo simulation techniaque is used in this article to evaluate distribution system and Matlab software is used to run this technique. In this program, distributing system elements, function models and beam structures of distributing system are applied. Results of both mote carlo analytical and simulation methods are evaluated and compared in this essay. Using sample distribution system, average values and probability distribution for all points are fully explained. A repetition process is used periodically to evaluate indexes of powe system reliability for modeling failure and repairing cycle of an equipment. This means that after repairing, equipment has good conditions regarding reliability indexes. However, practically there is an exhaustion curve for each equipment. Effect of exhaustion on equipments and on reliability indexes such as SAIFI are illustrated clearly in this paper. Mote carlo simulating method is proper because of system failure structure and history of repairing equipments. In this order, three methods are used to evaluate component exhaustion of sample system and results are compared together. It is noteworthy that 22 load point are evaluated for reliability.
Keywords: Reliability, distribution system, optimization, Monte Carlo, birds flying algorithm.


Audit Quality and Firms’ Earnings Information Content by Emphasizing on the Audit Firm Size
506-514
Gholam Hasan Taghi Nattaj and Jahanbakhsh Asadnia

Abstract:
In this study the existence of the relationship between the audit firm’s quality and the earnings information content of the firms have been investigated. To this aim, the firms’ data in Tehran securities exchange between 2005 and 2009 was used. The applied approach is the pooled data regression. To calculate the firms’ earnings information content the earnings’ response coefficient model was used. The results of the study showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the audit quality (measured by audit firm) and the firms’ earnings information content which the audit quality causes the earnings information content increasing. Also, the relationship between some of other factors like firms’ size, financial leverage, and the proportion of the market value to the shareholders rights book value was investigated. The obtained results indicated that the variables of firm’s size, financial leverage, and the proportion of the market value to the shareholders rights book value are effective on the information content. Therefore, the results showed that the effect of the financial leverage on the earnings information content among the firms with various audit qualities is different.
Keywords: Audit quality, earnings information content, audit firm’s size, pooled data regression.


A Modified Histogram-Thresholding Method for Brain Tumour Detection and Extraction from MRI Images
515-526
P.K. Srimani and Shanthi Mahesh

Abstract:
The study and manual segmentation of brain tumours from MRI images is a challenging and time consuming task. Brain cancer is a disease in which cells grow in an uncontrolled fashion in the brain. Therefore, a proper diagnosis of the disease is absolutely required so that effective treatment could be provided to the patients. The present work concentrates on three aspects: (i). first part of the present addresses the problem of detecting the position of the tumour, that is, whether the tumour is on the left or right side of the brain. This is achieved just with the information of which part of the brain contains more numbers of the pixels whose intensity is around 255. (ii). second part is to extract the tumour through segmentation using histogram thresholding and. (iii). third part performs statistical analysis on the segmented image and dimension of the tumour. Detailed experiments are carried out and the results are of high medical interest and provide an excellent platform for future studies.
Keywords: Brain tumour, segmentation, histogram, thresholding MRI image, quadrant.

The Effect of Hoop Stress on the Fatigue Behaviour of Woven-Roving GFRE Closed End Thick Tube Subjected to Combined Bending Moments and Internal Hydrostatic Pressure

527-536
M.N. Abouelwafa, H. A. El-Gamal, Y. S. Mohamed and Wael A. Al-Tabey

Abstract:
The effect of hoop stresses on the fatigue behaviour of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy (GFRE) is studied via testing thick-walled, woven-roving specimens with two fibre orientations, [0°,90°]3s and [±45°]3s, at different pressure ratios (Pr ),(i.e.pressures amounting to 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of the burst pressure).The [0,90°]3s specimens were found to have higher bending strength than the another fiber orientation [±45°]3s specimens, at all pressure ratios; as being subjected to a minimum value of shear local stress component s6 which equal to zero. The effect of pressure ratios on the amplitude bending stress is discussed, It is evident that as increase of the pressure would have an adverse effect on the bending stress rates of the specimens specimens for all fibre orientations, this is due to the pressure increasing the circumferential stresses within a specimens wall.Under all pressure ratios; the hoop stress component had a detrimental effect on the amplitude component for all fibre orientations, [0°,90°]3s and [±45°]3s,specimens, tending to decrease the amplitude component for the same life.
Keywords: Hoop Stress; Bending Fatigue; internal hydrostatic pressure; Reinforced Epoxy; composite thick tube; multilayer; fiber orientation; burst pressure.

The Dynamic Allocation Management of Emergency Cases in Hospital Information System using Data Clustering Approach
537-548
P. K. Srimani and Manjula Sanjay Koti

Abstract:
This paper examines the possibility of using data clustering techniques on emergency data to identify functional relationships between different attributes and classification of similar patient examinations. Data modeling puts clustering in a historical perspective rooted in mathematics, statistics, and numerical analysis. From a machine learning perspective clusters correspond to hidden patterns. The search for clusters is unsupervised learning, and the resulting system represents a data concept. From a practical perspective clustering plays an outstanding role in data mining applications such as scientific data exploration, information retrieval, text mining and spatial database applications. This study focuses on the dynamic allocation management of emergency cases in a hospital information system. The main objective of the present study is to make effective and efficient predictions with regard to the emergency cases in HIS by conducting experiments on the emergency data by implementing the four clustering algorithms with many criteria. It is found that the results are highly informative and they throw light not only on the practical aspects of the problem, but also on the medical aspect. Further, the results are of high quality and reveal the optimal solution with regard to the different clustering algorithms and the associated criteria.
Keywords: Clustering, Dissimilarities, HIS, Information System, Similarities, Triage.


The New Comprehensive Approach to Determination of Strategy, Goal Setting and Strategic Planning Full Illustrative Example “Financial Improvement of Carton & Packing Factory"

549-573
Milad Mohammadi, Behnam Zare and Morteza Yazdani

Abstract:
Efficient and accurate performance measurement systems serve as a useful tool enabling managers to control, monitor and improve company processes, productivity and performance. A model is developed for measuring the acceptable performance of company based on the interaction financial, customers, internal business process and learning and growth perspective (Ref1) . Strategic planning focusing on natural resource management is based on adjustment to changes in the operational environment subject to the goals set for the use of resources and the development of these resources ( Ref2) . This model will optimize company Productivity indexes, company shape of market, human resources management. .This paper proposed a comprehensive framework in order to formulate strategy in industrial factory. This approach is based on fuzzy Strategies, objectives Prioritization and decision – making to achieve a specific goal and designing Strategic plan. the fuzzy assessment of the decision-maker and the interaction among various evaluation criteria can be a focus of the evaluation of the aggregation performance, thus ensuring more effective and accurate performance evaluation and decision-making (Ref1).
Keywords: Strategic planning, Goal Setting, BSC, FBSC, Strategy Determination, Strategy implementation.


The Influence of Regulatory Focus on Health Claims Evaluation and Performance New Product
574-585
Faranak Khodayari, Mohammad Ali Abdolvand, Seyed JamaleddinTabibi and Hashem Nikoomaram

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim this research was explore how variable of "regulatory focus" impact health claims evaluation and attitude's consumers to performance new product. Design/ methodology/ approach: Health claims format with two physiologically oriented claims (heart disease and osteoporosis) and two psychologically oriented food claims (stress and lack of energy) are expressed in enhanced function format versus disease risk reduction format and health claims evaluated for attractive, convincing and credible by individuals. This research did for new product of Soy Enriched Bread. Number of sampling was 399 individuals in Iran. That data collected by questionnaire statements based on a seven-point Likert scale. Findings: The results have shown Significant difference is between the two groups Promotion-focused individuals. prevention-focused individuals on evaluating health claims and individuals with the focus prevention are evaluating health claims more attractive. Significant difference is between the two groups Promotion-focused individuals. Prevention-focused individuals on evaluating performance of new product and individuals with the focus promotion have a more positive attitude on evaluating performance of new product.
Keywords: Health claim, regulatory focus, new product, Iran.


Investigation on the Impact of Entrepreneurship Education by Means of Computer on the Creativity of Students
586-592
Safiollah Safaee, Mostafa Almase and Leila Saeidian

Abstract:
The main aim of the present study is to study the impact of entrepreneurship education with educational software, movie and simulators on the creativity of students who have participated in the classes of entrepreneurship. The method of conducting the project was semi-educational and the students who have participated in entrepreneurship classes (1389-1390) of Hamedan Payam Noor University constituted the statistical population. The results of this study showed the higher creativity of the students who have been trained by computer. Accordingly, using computer can be suggested for the aim of entrepreneurship education.
Keywords: Education, Creativity, Entrepreneurship, Computer Techniques.


The Causality Relationship among Inflation, Output Growth and their Uncertainties: Evidence for Turkey

593-602
Serpil Türkyilmaz and Mesut Balibey

Abstract:
This paper investigates the causality relationships among inflation, growth, inflation uncertainty and growth uncertainty in Turkey for the period of 2003:M01-2011:M12 by using monthly data. For this purpose, firstly, we employ EGARCH model to estimate time varying conditional variance of inflation and output growth, as measures of inflation and growth uncertainties. Secondly, the causality relationships among these variables are analyzed by VEC Granger Causality Tests. Consequently, findings indicate that inflation leads to inflation uncertainty. This result supports Friedman (1977) and Ball (1992) hypothesis. In addition, inflation uncertainty affects growth in line with Friedman (1977) hypothesis. However, our estimation results contradict the Cukierman-Meltzer (1986) and Holland (1995) hypothesis. We couldn’t find an evidence about the effect on inflation of inflation uncertainty. Furthermore, our estimation results show that growth uncertainy causes growth. This finding supports Pindyck (1991) hypothesis. Eventually, findings of our empirical analysis represent that there is an unidirectional causality to output uncertainty from inflation uncertainty supporting Devereux’s (1989) model. According to the results of our empirical analysis, we can conclude that policymakers have to be aware of relationships between macroeconomic variables. Furthermore, the effects of inflation and output uncertainty on economic growth, and the relationships between inflation and inflation uncertainty should be predicted by policymakers and investors. Consequently, it can be said that one of the primary objectives of policymakers must be to achieve economic stability in order to stimulate output growth.
Keywords: Inflation; Inflation Uncertainty; Output Growth; Output Uncertainty; EGARCH Model; VEC Granger Causality Test.
JEL Classification Codes: C01; C40; C32.


Experimental Assessment and Simulation for Mechanical Properties of Unidirectional Cotton-Polyester Composite Material
603-612
Vijaykumar Chaudhary and Piyush P Gohil

Abstract:
Natural fiber-reinforced composites are emerging as a possible replacement to glass fiber composite for low-cost applications. The aim of research is to characterize mechanical properties of Unidirectional Cotton Polyester Composites (Uni-CPC) which is manufactured from biodegradable, Eco friendly cotton fibers and polyester resin. For the purpose of mechanical property determination of Unidirectional CPC, tensile test and flexure test were conducted as per ASTM standard. ANSYS software package is used for simulating the mechanical testing. Comparison of experimental data with simulation data is carried out and it gives good agreement of experimental data with simulation data. Uni-CPC can be used for structural applications, automotive applications and especially as acoustic panels.
Keywords: Unidirectional Cotton Polyester Composite (Uni-CPC), Finite Element Analysis (FEA), Tensile Testing, Flexure Testing.


Inter-Organization Relationship and Management Leadership Style in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) (Structural Equation Modeling Approach)
613-623
Hamid Reza Altaha, Masoud Pourkiani and Asadolah Karnama

Abstract:
The organizations, with the number and variety of stakeholders and expectations, are not able to react properly due to the economic rationality or disability in providing facilities. The development and establishment of inter-organizational communication are considered as a modus operandi since they are applicable more than ever. Therefore, this research aims to study the inter-organizational relationship and managers' leadership style in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Kerman. The populations of this research are managers and staff of SMEs in Kerman and the sample size includes 171 principles and 310 employees. The simple random sampling procedure and Kokran formula are used to measure the sample size. The standard questionnaire is the data collection tool and Cronbach's Alpha is used to evaluate the stability and for justifiability, structure justifiability is used. Field and library studies are also used for data collection. This study, based on an applicable research and data collection methods, is a kind of descriptive and correlation research. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and confirmed Factor, in SPSS and LISREL, are used to analyze the questionnaire data in inferential statistic. The results indicate that there is a meaningful relation between inter-organization relationship strategies and management style in SMEs in Kerman.
Keywords: Inter-organizational strategies, managers' leadership style.


Modeling & Simulation of Band Pass Filter using Matlab/Simulink
624-632
Jamal A. Hameed

Abstract:
The Band pass Filter (BPF) is a typical practical modeling and simulation used to solve real electrical problems. MATLAB program has been built to investigate the adoption of the principles of engineering design and method of animation. The program calculates the locus of band-pass RC circuit due values of the resistance and capacitance. Then, the calculation and presentation of the locus and Bode diagram obtained. The aim of this paper is to examine the ability of the BPF to model, simulates and extract example1 as well as identified how to describes the BPF using software (SW) package. The results obtained by SW and Matlab/Simulink are compared to prove the validity of this work.
Keywords: BP filter design, SW package, Root locus, Magnitude and phase.


Image Retrieval from Large Medical Image Databases Based on Low Level Visual Information
633-641
Safoora Zakeri, Mohammad Shayesteh and Nima Karimi

Abstract:
The main goal of content based image retrieval (CBIR) is to efficiently retrieve images that are visually similar to a query image based on content properties. There is a significant increase in the use of medical images in clinical medicine, disease research, and education. Besides the ever-growing volume of medical data produced every day, CBIR methods have an important role in medical applications. In this paper, we have presented an interactive CBIR System of a large scale database of medical X-ray images. The applied approach consists of two main phases: a pre-processing phase, which builds an image category index, and a retrieval phase, which ranks similar images. Both phases are based on visual information. For image classification, we used a classifier based on support vector machines. Euclidean distance is used to measure similarity between images in retrieval phase. The Proposed system is able to interact with users and discover the current user’s information needs. Relevance feedback serves as an information carrier to convey the user's subjective judgment. The experiments and analysis of the results are based on a diverse medical image collection of 12,000 images. The retrieval algorithm performances are evaluated in terms of precision and recall. The Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Content-based image retrieval, Euclidean distance method, Image retrieval, Medical X-ray images, Relevance feedback.



The Effects of Trade and Financial Openness on Financial Development of a Group of OPEC Countries

642-649
Roya Seifipour and Ruholah Shirmard

Abstract:
This paper using data panels investigates effects of trade and financial openness on financial development of a group of OPEC countries for the period 2000-2011. Results of this research indicate trade and financial openness has a positive and significant effect on financial development of this group of countries. The per capita income is used as the effective index of financial development which shows positive and significant effect on the level of financial development in this group of countries. In addition, institutional and legal indicators are used as the explanatory variables in the model which are found with positive and significant effect on financial development of the understudy countries.
Keywords: Financial development, trade openness, financial openness, panel data.
Jel Classification Codes: G15, E44


The Fundamental Role of Culture in Entrepreneurship Development
650-654
Reza Yousofvand

Abstract:
Nowadays, entrepreneurship is considered as the driving force of economic development and employment. Accordingly, most governments have adopted developing entrepreneurship as a strategy for national development and have taken considerable measures to develop it. Supporting entrepreneurship has been recently adopted as a key policy by the Iranian government, highly considered in economic, social, and cultural development laws. Obviously, the role of the culture as a key factor in developing entrepreneurship must be taken seriously. This review article attempts to cover the capacity and the influence of the cultural sector on entrepreneurship and employment as much as possible.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, culture, Entrepreneurship culture.